Baku, the capital of the Republic of Azerbaijan is the largest commercial, cultural and scientific center in the Caucasus region, and the largest port on the Caspian Sea. The capital’s name itself is interpreted as a “wind blow”, “city of winds” or “hill”, “city on the hill”.
The port city of Baku, the cultural, industrial and political capital of Azerbaijan is located on the western Caspian seaside, on the bay shores of the same name in the southern part of the Apsheron Peninsula, rich in its oil fields.
Baku is the largest cultural center of Azerbaijan. It is the place where a national theatre, the first in Muslim East, lifted the curtain, the first opera was performed, the first Azerbaijan newspaper was published, the first Azerbaijan library was opened. Today Baku is known to have 30 museums, 7 theatres, 11 institutions of higher education, philharmonic, opera theatre, film studio, cinema theaters and libraries housed in the city’s most beautiful buildings having an interior decoration which is every bit as good as their interior cultural content.
Places to Visit
Old City ( Icheri Sheher )
Icheri Sheher is one of the oldest settlements in the Middle East. The excavations show that people still settled in this area during the Bronze Age. Until the 19th century, several thousand neighborhoods were the same as Baku itself. Icheri Sheher is an example of a city-style culture. There are three monuments – Maiden Tower, Shirvanshahs Palace, Mohammed Mosque, and 28 monuments of the country. Historic preserve is also an actual settlement, almost 1,300 families are living there nowadays.
Pearl of Baku – The Maiden Tower
The Maiden Tower is the most mysterious and magnificent monument of Baku. This monument is located in the southeastern part of Icheri Sheher. This unique architecture of Azerbaijani architecture does not have analogues in the East. The monument today draws attention with its unique form. There are numerous disputes around the history and design of the plan. The castle is constructed from the gray limestone at the outskirts of the coast, with a height of 28 m and a diameter of 16.5 m. The thickness of the walls is 5 m in the base of the building and 4 m above.In 1964, the castle was declared a museum, and in 2000 it was included in UNESCO’s monuments
Yanardag (Burning mountain)
Since ancient times our country is called the land of fires. The reason for this is the flames from the ground in different parts of our country. One of these places is the Yanardag. Yanardag is a state reserve between the village of Digah in Absheron District and the village of Mahammadi. People passing through this area watch the beauty of the flames.Tourists come from different countries around the world. Some view this place as a place of religious belief, while others look like a natural phenomenon.
The Temple of Eternal Fire – Ateshgah
The first buildings of Ateshgah temple are dated to the II, III centuries. At that time Zoroastrian religion spread in Azerbaijan. Zoroastrian temples were built in the regions. The Ateshgah temple in Surakhani operated in the 7th century. As we know, Islam was adopted in Azerbaijan in VII century. After that, Zoroastrian temples in the country began to fail. The temple of Ateshgah, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, entered its second life. During that period the famous Silk Road passed through Azerbaijan. In this way, when the merchants who came to our country returned to their homeland, they talked about the natural flame that came out of Surakhani. As a result pilgrims, firefighters began to arrive here. This place was already sanctified to them. Firefighters from different countries, including India, used to worship flame here.
Gobustan‘s unique rock painting depicts the reality and the environment where our ancestors lived, their living conditions and their primitive beliefs. These miraculous rocks are valuable resources not only for the ancient man’s shelter but also for the history of the ancient people of Azerbaijan. These stunning images, which are at the center of attention of researchers since the discovery, are a very interesting part of our past. Gobustan occupies a special place among the few monuments of the world with a diversity of rock paintings.
Heydar Aliyev Center
Haydar Aliyev Center is considered as is one of the main attractions for tourists and has also become a symbol of modern Azerbaijan and modern Baku.
Zaha Hadid, the author of the building’s design, is a worldwide recognized architect and the winner of the prestigious Pritzker Architecture Prize and Design of the Year award for her design of Heydar Aliyev Center. The overall shape of the building resembles a wave-like ascension from the ground towards the sky followed by a gradual descent down to the earth.
If you want to spend more interesting and unforgettable time in Baku, you should visit Heydar Aliyev Center. You can get General Ticket for just 12 ₼. These tickets provide you access to Heydar Aliyev museum and “Azerbaijan Treasures” exhibition within the Center.
The Azerbaijan Carpet Museum was created under the Decree No. 130 dated March 13, 1967, of the Council of Ministers of the Azerbaijan SSR. From 1967 to 1993, the museum was called the Azerbaijan State Museum of Carpet and Folk Applied Arts, from 1993 to 2014 – State Museum of Carpet and Applied Arts named after Latif Karimov, from 2014 to the present time the Azerbaijan Carpet Museum.
At the time of establishing, it was the only museum that was dedicated to the art of carpet weaving. The main purpose of the creation of the museum was to store, research, and demonstrate unique examples of the carpet weaving art, which are Azerbaijan’s national heritage. The initiator of the museum was Latif Karimov – an outstanding scientist and carpet weaver, the founder of the science of Azerbaijan Carpet Weaving Art, artist and teacher, author of the fundamental work Azerbaijani carpet.
Azerbaijan National History Museum
The National History Museum of Azerbaijan was 90 in 2010. The museum named after Azerbaijan State Museum at the beginning of its activity and since then continues to strengthen its profile. The museum attracted people’s attention to its expositions and exhibitions reflecting all period of Azerbaijan history. Today 300 thousand patterns immortalizing the history of our nation are saved in various funds of the museum. In the library of the museum are more than 80. 000 books, as well as rare journals and newspapers printed in the early of 19th -20thcenturies.The museum building is one of the beautiful architectural monuments of Baku.